The aim of terrorism all over the world is to have fear rule over people's lives. The consequences of terrorist attacks, however, are substantially different across contexts. In this paper we study the association between exposure to Boko Haram's attacks and households' fertility choices in Nigeria. We hypothesise that households exposed to terrorism increase their number of children as a way to insure against future unexpected shocks. We test this hypothesis using geolocalized panel data linked to information on terrorist attacks that occurred in the region. Consistent with our hypothesis, terrorism is found to increase fertility (proxied by the number of surviving children per household): a one standard deviation increase in the number of fatalities increases the probability that a household hit by terrorism has a newborn by 1%. This association is robust to the use of difference-in-differences and instrumental variables models -- and therefore can be given a causal interpretation.
With Michele Rocca, Forthcoming at the Journal of African Economies
Battiston, P., Gamba, S., Rotondi, V. (2019) "What does a young cheater look like? An innovative approach" in A. Bucciol and N. Montinari, "Dishonesty in Behavioral Economics", Elsevier.
Pesando, L., Rotondi, V. (2020: forthcoming) "Mobile technology and gender equality" in Encyclopedia of the UN Sustainable Development Goals. Gender Equality.
During the fifteenth century AD, the Franciscans gave birth to the first "ethical" bank: the Monti di Pietà which were used to give small loans at relatively low (or null) rates. In this paper, we focus on the relationship between the existence of Monti di Pietà back in the past and social capital today.
In this paper, we analyze the link between foreign aid for family planning services and a broad set of health outcomes. More specifically, we document the unequal health consequences of the so-called Mexico City Policy (MCP henceforth). This policy is implemented only when a Republican administration holds US presidency and restricts US funding for non-governmental organizations that provide information on or access to abortion abroad. Previous research has shown that MCP causes large disruptions in family planning services around the world, but its consequences for health outcomes remain largely underexplored. Using country-level data from 162 countries, we show that MCP is associated with higher maternal and neonatal mortality as well as HIV prevalence. These effects are stronger in countries more exposed to US aid shocks and weaker in countries in which girls' enrollment in school is higher. Furthermore, using individual-level data from 23 countries in Sub-Saharan Africa, we show that under MCP women have less access to contraception, HIV testing, and in-person family planning services. Our findings highlight the importance of mitigating the harmful effects of MCP by lifting or redesigning MCP.
With: Kerim Can Kavakli
While both the conventional wisdom and the Second Demographic Transition theory suggest that having children is rewarding for individuals and increases their life satisfaction and happiness, the empirical literature across different disciplines has not yet found a clear answer on neither the direction nor the magnitude of the association between childbearing and happiness. Here we explore a possible mechanism that might explain the association between parenthood and happiness: the neuro-anatomical changes occurring to parental brains when transitioning into parenthood and the role played by empathy. After birth and two years afterwards women show
reduced gray matter volumes in regions subserving social cognition and in particular the amygdala, insula, precuneus, superior
temporal and medial prefrontal areas. Also fathers experience changes in their brain, although of smaller size.
These changes also affect affective domains, such as empathy and social emotions. At the same time, the literature documents that emotional distress and the perception of other people's pain activate neural structures (including the anterior cingulate cortex, anterior insula, and the amygdala) that are also involved in the direct experience of pain. As a result, we expect to find a negative relationship between parenting and happiness mediated by an increase in the ability to feel others' pain. We test this hypothesis by leveraging the richness of the UK Biobank Dataset including the collection of genome-wide genetic data and resting and task-based fMRI of around 100000 participants aged 40--69 years old. Through the developed world, the high level of childlessness and the decrease in family size among those having children are timely and pressing policy issues. The fact that, in many although not all industrialized societies, parents report lower levels of happiness than childless adults might possibly fuel the perception that having children is not rewarding thus reducing the desire to become parents. Understanding the reasons behind the usually observed negative correlation between parenthood and happiness is, therefore, crucial.
With: Nicola Barban, Ridhi Kashyap, Carlo Reverberi, and Maria Sironi
2. "Experts vs. policymakers in the COVID-19 policy response", 2021. With Angelo Antoci, Fabio Sabatini, Pier Luigi Sacco, Mauro Sodini. R&R.
3. "Harnessing the Potential of Online Searches for Understanding the Impact of COVID-19 on Intimate Partner Violence in Italy", 2020. With Selin Köksal, Luca M. Pesando, and Ebru Şanlıtürk. Population Center Working Papers (PSC/PARC), University of Pennsylvania No. 1-12-2021. Under revision.
4. "US foreign aid restrictions, maternal and children’s health: Evidence from the "Mexico City Policy"", 2020. With Kerim Can Kavakli. Under revision.
5. "What exactly is public in a public good game? A lab-in-the-field experiment", 2018. With Pietro Battiston, Simona Gamba, and Matteo Rizzolli. Under revision.
6. "Mobile money and the labor market: Evidence from developing countries", 2019. With Chiara De Gasperin, and Luca Stanca. DEMS WORKING PAPER SERIES. No. 403 – March 2019. Under revision.
7. "Impact of Home Gardening on Production and Diet Diversification. Evidence from a Field Experiment in Ethiopia", with Jacopo Bonan and Stefano Pareglio, 2015. WP 312, DEMS University of Milan-Bicocca.